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Searched keyword : Enteroviruses
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Environmental and human surveillance of polioviruses, VDPVs, and other enteroviruses in Madagascar during the switch from tOPV to bOPV
Poliomyelitis has been a major public health concern and currently, efforts are being made towards eradicating wild poliovirus type 2 (WPV2). A global switch from trivalent oral poliovirus vaccine (tOPV) to bivalent oral poliovirus vaccine (bOPV without PV2) is planned to take place this year in countries, like Madagascar, where epidemics of type 2 pathogenic circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses (cVDPVs) occur when low polio vaccine coverage allows the circulation and genetic drift of vaccine attenuated PV2 that can thus become pathogenic. In an attempt to monitor the presence and eventually absence of wild poliovirus 2, environmental and human surveillance will be conducted before, during, and after the switch in two regions in Madagascar. PV2, in particular cVDPVs and other enteroviruses will be genetically characterized. These data will support monitoring efforts and confirm the elimination of type 2 PV strains that have been implicated in outbreaks in this country.
Notre objectif est d'étudier comment la recombinaison génétique génère de la diversité au sein des écosystèmes d'entérovirus.
Enteroviruses are known to recombine a lot during the replication cycle. A lot of viruses produce defective genomes, which are generated by the polymerase skipping several nucleotides and thus, forming internal deletions of the genome. We would like to look at this process more closely and come up with a model, which includes the role of the RNA virus genome itself, including its structure.
We passaged EV71 in cell culture, followed by RNAseq analysis. The sequences were analysed for the presence of internal deletions within the viral genome. Such deletions can contribute to non-homologous and homologous recombination within Enteroviruses, which can have positive effects, such as the purging of deleterious mutations or to overcome host restrictions. On the other hand such deletions could result in the formation of defective interfering particles (DIs), which have the ability to interfere with wildtype virus infections and thus, reduce viral loads in ongoing infections. We aim to get a better understanding of these events during viral replication that can aid us to identify DIs and can help us explore these special forms of virus genome deletions as potential therapeutic agents.