Hub members Have many expertise, covering most of the fields in bioinformatics and biostatistics. You'll find below a non-exhaustive list of these expertise
Searched keyword : Fungi
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I joined the C3BI Hub in 2016 after a curriculum widely dedicated to Bioinformatics studies, and more precisely to Phylogeny and Evolution, topics of my PhD thesis. At Institut Pasteur, I am involved in projects dealing with sequences homology : alignments, hmm profiles, making homologous family databases, kmers signatures. I am also a developer (Python / C++) with a solid interest in optimization as well as in developing usable tools for final user such as automated pipeline for metagenomics sequence analysis. I’m currently embedded in Marc Eloit’s team (80% of my work time). My main task in this team is to develop strategies to identify, in their metagenomics samples, new pathogens, or new combination pathogen / symptoms. The rest of my time, I manage small projects and participate to the Hub life. I am currently experimenting with functional programming (for now, using Python) and its applicability to bioinformatics issues.
AlgorithmicsScientific computingSofware development and engineeringParallel computingGraph theory and analysis
I have a joint MSc degree in Mathematical Modelling from three European universities: University of L’Aquila (Italy), University of Nice-Sophia Antipolis (France) and Autonomous University of Barcelona (Spain). I also hold a PhD degree in Applied Mathematics and Scientific Computing from University of Bordeaux, France. I have done my PhD and one year of post-doc at INRIA Bordeaux Sud-Ouest, and partially at IHU-Liryc. During this time I studied how electrical signals propagate through the cardiac tissue under certain diseased conditions. My model of interest was the bidomain model, which is a system of partial differential equations that takes into account physiological properties of the cardiac cells and the spatial organization of the cardiac tissue. I worked on the mathematical multiscale analysis and numerical simulations of the problem to understand how structural changes of the tissue affect the propagation of the signal on the heart level. I collaborated with biologists and engineers of the IHU-Liryc to apply my model on a rat heart using high-resolution MRI data. For this I also worked on image analysis and image processing. I’ve joined the Institute Pasteur in February 2018 as a member of the HUB in Bioinformatics and Biostatistics. Currently I am working on stochastic mathematical modeling and inference for systems biology, gene expression, RNA transcription, etc.
ModelingScientific computingApplication of mathematics in sciencesGraphics and Image Processing
BacteriaFungiInsect or arthropodEscherichia coliSaccharomyces cerevisiaeFly
- Modelization of the timing of abscission(Arnaud ECHARD - Membrane Traffic and Cell Division) - In Progress
- Estimation of the impact of differential apoptotic rate on local clone size(Romain LEVAYER - Cell death and epithelial homeostasis) - In Progress
- State and parameter inference for stochastic models of gene expression(Jakob RUESS - Other) - Closed
Rachel Legendre is a bioinformatics engineer. She completed her master degree in apprenticeship for two years at INRA in Jouy-en-Josas in the Genetic Animal department. She was involved in a project aiming at the detection and the expression analysis of micro-RNA involved in an equine disease. In 2012, she joined the Genomic, Structure and Translation Team at Paris-Sud (Paris XI) university. She worked principally on Ribosome Profiling data analysis, a new technique that allows to identify the position of the ribosome on the mRNA at the nucleotide level. Since november 2015, she worked at Institut Pasteur. During 4 years, she was detached to the Biomics Platform, where she was in charge of the bioinformatics analyses for transcriptomics and epigenomics projects. She was also involved in Long Reads (PacBio and Nanopore) developments with other bioinformaticians of Biomics. Since november 2019, she has joined the Hub of Bioinformatics and Biostatistics, et more precisely the Genome Organization Regulation and Expression group.
AlgorithmicsChIP-seqEpigenomicsNon coding RNATranscriptomicsGenome analysisProgram developmentScientific computingSofware development and engineeringIllumina HiSeqRead mappingSequencingWorkflow and pipeline developmentChromatin accessibility assaysPac BioRibosome profiling
BacteriaFungiParasiteHumanInsect or arthropodOther animal
- Exploring pathogenic mechanisms of chronic inflammatory disease: unresolved issues in IL-23/IL-17 biology(YAHIA HANANE - Immunoregulation) - Pending
- Identification of factors influencing the activity of bacteriophage within the gut of mammals(Devon CONTI - Other) - In Progress
- HKA: systemic analysis of two-component signalling(Arnaud FIRON - Biology of Gram-Positive Pathogens) - In Progress
After a PhD in biochemistry of the rapeseed proteins, during which I developed my first automated scripts for handling data processing and analysis, I join Danone research facility center for developing multivariate models for the prediction of milk protein composition using infrared spectrometry.
As I was already developing my own informatics tools, I decided to join the course of informatic for biology of the Institut Pasteur in 2007. At the end of the course I was recruited by the Institute and integrate the unit of “génétique des interactions macromoléculaires” of Alain Jacquier. Within this group, I learn to handle sequencing data and I developed processing and analysis tools using python and R. I also create a genome browser and database system for storing, retrieving and visualizing microarray data. After 8 years within the Alain Jacquier’s lab, I join the Hub of bioinformatics and biostatistics as co-head of the team.
ClusteringData managementSequence analysisTranscriptomicsWeb developmentDatabaseGenome analysisProgram developmentScientific computingExploratory data analysisData and text miningIllumina HiSeqRead mappingLIMSIllumina MiSeqHigh Throughput ScreeningMultidimensional data analysisWorkflow and pipeline developmentRibosome profilingMotifs and patterns detection
- SHERLOCK4HAT - WP1.1(Brice ROTUREAU - Group: Trypanosome transmission) - Closed
- Remettre les servers Genolist comme LegioList, TuberclListe, Colibri etc en service(Carmen BUCHRIESER - Biology Of Intracellular Bacteria) - Closed
- Identification of eukaryotic 5'UTRs(Arnaud ECHARD - Membrane Traffic and Cell Division) - Closed
Professional Experience Today - Institut Pasteur,Paris - HUB Team 2017 - Bioinformatician 2001 - 2017 - Institut Pasteur,Paris; CIB/DSI - Engineer 1997 - 2000 Thesis: NMR and molecular modelisation, CEA, Saclay,
Data managementSequence analysisTranscriptomicsGenome analysisProgram developmentScientific computing
FungiCandida albicansCryptococcus gattiiCryptococcus neoformans
- Viral metagenomic in noctule bats from East Europe(Laurent DACHEUX - Lyssavirus Dynamics and Host Adaptation) - In Progress
- Viral metagenomic in Chinese bats and their associated ectoparasites.(Laurent DACHEUX - Lyssavirus Dynamics and Host Adaptation) - In Progress
- Characterization of Salmonella mutants(FRANCOISE NOREL - Biochemistry of Macromolecular Interactions) - In Progress
Related projects (33)
Cryptococcus neoformans is a pathogenic yeasts that infect mostly immunocompromised people. The strain H99 belongs to the C. neoformans variety grubii group. This is the reference strain that have already been sequenced. A project initiated by the Broad Institute aims at analysing the genome of about 300 clinical isolates including 28 of our French isolates. Part of our French isolates have been screened in terms of interaction with macrophages (774). Huge variations in terms of phagocytosis and intracellular proliferation of the yeasts were observed between clinical isolates (Alanio et al. mBio 2011). Thirteen of these clinical isolates together with H99 were studied in terms of transcriptome (using RNASeq). This work was performed by MA Dillies at the PF2. We correlated the expression of about 150 genes with the phenotype of the 13 clinical isolates and H99.
Candida albicans is responsible for the majority of life-threatening fungal infections occurring in hospitalized patients and is also the most frequently isolated fungal commensal of humans. The C. albicans population includes at least 18 phylogenetic groups (or clades). Specific phenotypes can distinguish isolates within a given clade from those in other clades and yet, the relationships between C. albicans natural genetic and phenotypic diversities have not been explored in depth. We have sequenced the diploid genomes of >150 C. albicans isolates selected from a collection of commensal/clinical isolates previously used to characterize the population structure and belonging to the 12 major C. albicans clades. The aim of this project is to develop the tools necessary for an in depth analysis of these genome sequences in order to allow us ask questions about the extent of C. albicans genetic diversity, the contribution of loss-of-heterozygosity to this diversity, and the history of C. albicans population.
Candida albicans is responsible for the majority of life-threatening fungal infections occurring in hospitalized patients and is also the most frequently isolated fungal commensal of humans. Microevolution of C. albicans isolates has been observed in a number of instances, being in particular characterized by loss-of-heterozygosity events. Yet, most studies that have investigated such microevolutions have not used whole-genome sequencing. In this project, we aim to characterize C. albicans microevolution at the genome-wide level. To this aim, we will take advantage of multiple isolates collected at the same time in healthy individuals and that share the same molecular type, thus providing information on the extent of genetic diversity of commensal isolates. We will also take advantage of series of isolates collected in patients with different forms of candidiasis and/or that have received antifungal therapy, thus providing information of the impact of pathogenic interaction and antifungal treatment on genome dynamics.
Background: The opportunistic pathogen Candida glabrata is a member of the Saccharomycetaceae yeasts. Like its close relative Saccharomyces cerevisiae, it underwent a whole-genome duplication followed by an extensive loss of genes. Its genome contains a large number of very long tandem repeats, called Megasatellites. In order to determine the whole replication program of C. glabrata genome and its general chromosomal organization, we used deep-sequencing and Chromosome Conformation Capture (3C) experiments. Results: We identified 253 replication fork origins, genomewide. Centromeres, HML and HMR loci and most histone genes are replicated early, whereas natural chromosomal breakpoints are located in late replicating regions. In addition, 275 Autonomously Replicating Sequences (ARS) were identified during ARS-capture experiments, and their relative fitness was determined during growth competition. Analysis of ARSs allowed to identify a 17 bp consensus, similar to the S. cerevisiae ARS Consensus Sequence (ACS) but slightly more constrained. Megasatellites are not in close proximity to replication origins or termini. Using chromosome conformation capture, we also show that early origins tend to cluster whereas non-subtelomeric megasatellites do not cluster in the yeast nucleus. Conclusions: Despite a shorter cell cycle, the C. glabrata replication program shares unexpected striking similarities to S. cerevisiae, in spite of their large evolutionary distance and the presence of highly repetitive large tandem repeats in C. glabrata. No correlation could be found between the replication program and megasatellites, suggesting that their formation and propagation might not be directly caused by replication fork initiation or termination.
In wild life, yeast cells are able to survive in severe conditions, without nutriment for a long period of time because the cell is able to enter in stationary phase. During this phase, the cell can transform varied sources of energy and pause its growth to preserve the cells from death. It is known that most of genes are downregulated in stationary phase and the cell activity is globally reduced to its strict minimum, while a subset of “specialized” genes is induced to promote survival in extreme conditions. We are analysing the transcriptome of exponentially grown or stationary phase yeasts, investigating different level of regulation.
The increased incidences of invasive fungal infections coupled with the paucity of available antifungal drugs for treatment have driven the search for novel agents with unique fungal targets. Studies in the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans have attempted to identify novel transcription factors that may be associated with regulating antifungal drug tolerance. In order to investigate novel regulators of cell wall permeability and antifungal responses in the pathogenic mold Aspergillus fumigatus, we employed a library composed of deletions in nearly 400 transcription factors. A screen for mutants that demonstrated altered susceptibility to congo red and calcofluor white, two cell wall binding agents, identified three hypersensitive and three resistant mutants. RNA-seq analysis is ongoing in order to identify and analyze the genes/pathways that play a role in the modification of cell wall permeability.
The recent analysis of the Cryptococcus neoformans transcriptomes revealed the presence of thousands of lncRNAs. In these yeasts, different types of lncRNAs seem to exist. The ones that are antisense of coding genes (the NATs), the ones that are located between coding genes (the lincRNAs) and some others that seem to result from alternative transcription start site selection. We identified growth conditions under which the expression of some of them is regulated. We have also identified some genes implicated in the regulation of some of these lncRNAs. This project deals with the characterisation of these lncRNAs, the analysis of their regulation and the study of their function in the biology and virulence of this pathogenic yeast.
Le génome de Cryptococcus neoformans a été réannoté grâce à des données RNA-seq. Ces nouvelles annotations doivent être soumises dans les banques publiques.
Meiosis is the specialized, highly regulated process at the basis of the sexual reproduction of eukaryotes. During this process, a diploid cell undergoes a single round of DNA replication and two successive rounds of chromosome segregation, halving the chromosome set to generate four haploid products (gametes). Homologous (i.e. paternal and maternal) chromosomes during the prophase of the first division of meiosis undergo a highly regulated succession of events that include recognition, pairing, and synapsis along their length. An important aspect of chromosome organization, besides pairing and synapsis, consist in the condensation step: axial elements form between sister chromatids, bridging distant axis sites comprising cohesins, and resulting in the extrusion of chromatin loops away from the axis. The precise organization of these chromatin loops remain unclear, and is notably impaired by the sequence similarities of the two homologs. Our aim is to characterize the fine organization of chromatin on both homologs during meiotic prophase, and how this organization is functionally related to a recombination event.
Genomic DNA is hierarchically packed within the living cells and genome duplication requires the concerted effort of many thousands of individual replication units. As such, to ensure the integrity of transmission of the genetic information, both eukaryotes and prokaryotes have evolved sophisticated mechanisms to monitor DNA replication. Some of these mechanisms aim to maintain both a temporal and a spatial organization of the replication program, leading to multiple replication time regions and the compartmentalization into replication foci, subnuclear sites which accumulate numerous DNA replication factors. It should be noted that Saccharomyces cerevisiae represents an exception to the standard eukaryotic strategy for genome duplication. Similar to bacteria, S. cerevisiae possess well-defined replication origin sequences that can fire at a very efficient rate during S phase, leading to a very homogenous pattern of DNA replication. A common mo del suggests that, once replication starts dynamic events take place since co-regulated replication forks, having similar replication timing, cluster within a discrete number of foci that show distinct patterns of nuclear localization over the S-phase. Once initiated, the DNA synthesis might be compromised if the replication fork encounters an RFB (Replication Fork Barrier) such as DNA lesions, tightly bound protein-DNA complexes etc. The RFBs are considered a potential source of genetic instability and may lead to many chromosomal rearrangements. As a consequence, eukaryotes employ a complex DNA damage response against RFBs, which aims to maintain the stability of the stalled forks and provides the time required to repair and resume replication. Recent observations suggest that the non-random organization of the nucleus affects where repair occurs. The aim of this project is to reach a better understanding of the influence of the nuclear spatial architecture and organization at replication fork blocks.
A major program of evolutionary and comparative genomics of yeasts has been in progress in my laboratory for many years (see publications). In the next few months (before summer 2015) I need to finish a few comparisons about a new clade to publish as soon as possible.
Mise a disposition d'un(e) bioinformaticien(ne) du hub pour les analyses bioinformatiques du transcriptome et de l epigenome
La PF Transcriptome et Epigenome développe des projets de séquençage à haut débit (collaboration et service) avec des équipes du Campus. Ceux-ci couvrent l'ensemble des thématiques du campus ainsi qu'une large gamme d'organismes (des virus aux mammifères). La plate-forme exerce des activités de biologie humide (construction des librairies et séquençage) et de biologie sèche (analyse bioinformatiques et statistiques). La personne mise a disposition interagira étroitement avec les autres bioinformaticiens du pôle BioMics et du Hub. Ses activités concerneront notamment: - La participation à la conception et à la mise en place des projets avec les équipes demandeuses, la prise en charge des analyses et le reporting aux utilisateurs - La mise en place d'un workflow d'analyse bioinformatique des données de transcriptome /épigénome en étroite collaboration avec le C3BI, la DSI et les autres bioinformaticiens du pole. Ce workflow permettra le contrôle qualité des données, leur prétraitement, le mapping des séquences sur les génomes/transcriptomes de réference, et le comptage des reads pour les différents éléments de l'annotation - L'adaptation du workflow d'analyse aux questions biologiques et aux organismes étudiés dans le cadre des activités de la PF - L'activité de veille technologique et bibliographique (test et validation de nouveaux outils d'analyse, updates d'outils existants...) - La mise en place et le développement d'outils d'analyse adaptés aux futurs projets de la PF: single cell RNAseq, métatranscriptome, ChIPseq, analyse des isoformes de splicing.. Ceci se fera notamment via la réalisation d'analyses dédiées avec certains utilisateurs. Les outils mis en place et validés dans ce cadre seront ensuite utilisés pour l'ensemble des projets. - L'activité de communication et de formation (participation aux réunions du consortium France Génomique,formation permanente à l' Institut Pasteur… - la participation a d autres projets du Pole BioMics (selon disponibilité) Bernd Jagla, qui était le bioinformaticien de la plateforme a rejoint le Hub au 1er janvier 2016. Rachel Legendre est mise a disposition depuis le 2 novembre 2015 et remplace Bernd Jagla. Je souhaite que Rachel Legendre soit mise à disposition de la plateforme pour une durée d'au moins 2 ans.
Cryptococcus neoformans is a sugar-coated yeast that is able to interact closely with numerous organisms in the environment including amebae, paramecium of nematodes. The interaction with these organisms probably shaped its virulence. The ability to survive nutrient starvation, oxidative stress, desiccation, both in the environment and in humans, indicates a high level of physiological and metabolic plasticity of the yeast. In humans, after primary infection during childhood, the yeast is able to survive within the host for years before reactivation, leading to a deadly disseminated fungal infection. This phenomenon, called dormancy / quiescence is one of the main biological features of this fungus in relation with disease pathogenesis. It is known in bacteria, parasites and other fungi. There is no consensus on the definition of dormancy. Most often, dormant cells are characterized by a low metabolic activity sometimes undetectable under normal laboratory conditions and the ability to be resuscitated by adequate stimuli. In C. neoformans, dormancy has only been demonstrated epidemiologically in our laboratory but not experimentally so far. We developed an assay where yeasts cells exhibiting characteristics of potentially dormant cells were generated. Our current project aims at exploring the conditions leading to, the biology of the entry in and the mechanisms sustaining dormancy.
Massive amplification at an unselected locus accompanies complex chromosomal rearrangements in yeast
Gene amplification has been observed in different organisms in response to environmental constraints, such as limited nutrients or exposure to a variety of toxic compounds, conferring them specific phenotypic adaptations by increasing expression levels. But the presence of multiple gene copies has generally not been found in natural genomes in absence of specific functional selection. Here we show that the massive amplification of a chromosomal locus (up to 880 copies per cell) occurs in absence of any direct selection, associated with low-order amplifications of flanking segments in complex chromosomal alterations. These results were obtained in the mutants with restored phenotypes that spontaneously appear from genetically engineered strains of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae with severe fitness reduction. Grossly extended chromosomes (macrotene) were formed, with complex structural alterations but sufficient stability to propagate unchanged over successive generations. Their detailed molecular analysis, including complete genome sequencing, identification of sequence breakpoints and comparisons between mutants reveals novel mechanisms to their formation whose combined action underlies the astonishing dynamics of eukaryotic chromosomes and its consequences.
The gastrointestinal tract of humans is colonized by hundreds of microbial species, - bacteria, archaebacterial, fungi, protozoa and viruses -, collectively named the gut microbiome. The intestinal commensal bacteria have an important role in metabolic processes and contribute to colonization resistance against intestinal pathogens. Fungi are usually considered to be a minor component of the global microbiome. However, the mycobiome (fungal component of the entire microbiome) has been in fact little studied particularly with regards to its relationships with the other components of the microbiome. It seems however that fungi can be important players of the microbiome because some fungal species are able to proliferate in response to diet or during dysbiosis due to antibiotic treatment or gut inflammation. Consensus approaches to explore mycobiome together with other components of the mycobiome are still lacking. In this context the primary goal of our project will be to determine the best means to analyze bacterial and fungal microbiome concomitantly, using an identical technical procedure. We will evaluate the effectiveness of different methods for: 1) sample conservation; 2) DNA extraction; 3) mapping fungal and bacterial databases. The best procedure then will be used on samples from different studies to analyze interactions and respective dynamics of fungal and bacterial microbiome in different clinical settings.
Project context and summary : Cryptococcus neoformans is a sugar-coated yeast that is able to interact closely with numerous organisms in the environment including amebae, paramecium of nematodes. The interaction with these organisms probably shaped its virulence. The ability to survive nutrient starvation, oxidative stress, desiccation, both in the environment and in humans, indicates a high level of physiological and metabolic plasticity of the yeast. In humans, after primary infection during childhood, the yeast is able to survive within the host for years before reactivation, leading to a deadly disseminated fungal infection. This phenomenon, called dormancy / quiescence is one of the main biological features of this fungus in relation with disease pathogenesis. It is known in bacteria, parasites and other fungi. There is no consensus on the definition of dormancy. Most often, dormant cells are characterized by a low metabolic activity sometimes undetectable under normal laboratory conditions and the ability to be resuscitated by adequate stimuli. In C. neoformans, dormancy has only been demonstrated epidemiologically in our laboratory but not experimentally so far. We developed an assay where yeasts cells exhibiting characteristics of potentially dormant cells were generated. Our current project aims at exploring the conditions leading to, the biology of the entry in and the mechanisms sustaining dormancy.
Our aim is to characterize the fine organization of chromatin on homologs during meiotic prophase, and how this organization is functionally related to recombination.
Identification of new or unexpected pathogens, including viruses, bacteria, fungi and parasites associated with acute or progressive diseases
Microbial discovery remains a challenging task for which there are a lot of unmet medical and public health needs. Deep sequencing has profoundly modified this field, which can be summarized in two questions : i) which pathogens or association of pathogens are associated with diseases of unknown etiology and ii) among microbes infecting animal (including arthropod) reservoirs, which ones are able to infect large vertebrates, including humans. We are currently addressing these two questions and our current request comes with the willingness for Institut Pasteur to increase its contribution and visibility of this thematic, in particular in relation with hospitals and the Institut Pasteur International network (IPIN). We expect to identify new microbes associated with human diseases, and this is expected to pave the way for basic research programs focusing on virulence mechanisms and host specificity, and will also lead to phylogenetic and epidemiological studies (frequency of host infection, mode of transmission etc...), as well as the development of improved diagnostic tests for human infections. Our objective is also to contribute to the efforts of Institut Pasteur in the field of infectious diseases, by building a pipeline, from sample to microbial identification, able to manage large cohorts of samples. This project is currently supported by the LABEX IBEID and the CITECH, and critically requires a bioIT support, justifying this application. Partners include different hospitals including Necker-Enfants malades University Hospital regarding patients with progressive disease, different IPIN laboratories, as well as INRA and CIRAD regarding animal/arthropod reservoirs.
We are interested in the cytoplasmic quality control of gene expression and more especially into the behavior of aberrant peptides which could be generated from non-conform translation events. We are now investigating the role of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae RNA helicase protein that we named Tac4 (for Translation associated Component 4). We showed that this protein is involved in translation. We demonstrated, by sucrose gradient and affinity purification that Tac4 interacts with the ribosome. A first UV cross-linking and cDNA analysis (CRAC) experiment clearly revealed that Tac4 interacts with the 18S rRNA of the 40S ribosomal subunit and we precisely defined the crosslink point. These preliminary results also suggested an enrichment of the 3’-end regions of mRNAs. This implies that Tac4 could not only interact with the small ribosomal subunit but also directly with mRNA. Tac4 is conserved through the evolution and its mammalian homologue is involved in initiation of translation. Therefore, we thought that Tac4 could be associated with the 5’-end rather than with the 3’-end. However, a recent paper from the Rachel Green’s lab showed that translation reinitiation into the 3’-UTR region may occurs when translation termination is affected (Young et al., Cell 2015). The factors and molecular mechanisms implicated in these events are not known. Altogether, our preliminary results suggest that Tac4 is an excellent candidate participating to the unwinding of RNA structure or to the release of some RNA-binding proteins into the 3’-end mRNA. We now would like to 1) confirm that Tac4 preferentially interacts with the 3’-end of mRNA, 2) determine whether Tac4 interacts with a region upstream the Stop codon or in the 3’-UTR of the mRNA, 3) identify the mRNA targets to determine whether Tac4 could have a general role in translation or could only be involved in translation of some specific mRNA.
We are interested in the cytoplasmic quality control of gene expression and more especially into the behavior of aberrant peptides which could be generated from non-conform translation events. We are now investigating the role of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae RNA helicase protein that we named Tac4 (for Translation Associated Component 4). We showed that this protein is involved in translation. We demonstrated, by sucrose gradient and affinity purification that Tac4 interacts with the ribosome. A first UV cross-linking and cDNA analysis (CRAC) experiment clearly revealed that Tac4 interacts with the 18S rRNA of the 40S ribosomal subunit and we precisely defined the crosslink point. These preliminary results also suggested an enrichment of the 3’-end regions of mRNAs. This implies that Tac4 could not only interact with the small ribosomal subunit but also directly with mRNA. Tac4 is conserved through the evolution and its mammalian homologue is involved in initiation of translation. Therefore, we thought that Tac4 could be associated with the 5’-end rather than with the 3’-end. However, recent data showed that translation reinitiation into the 3’-UTR region may occurs when translation termination is affected. The factors and molecular mechanisms implicated in these events are not known. Altogether, our preliminary results suggest that Tac4 is an excellent candidate participating to the unwinding of RNA structure or to the release of some RNA-binding proteins into the 3’-end mRNA. We now would like to 1) confirm that Tac4 preferentially interacts with the 3’-end of mRNA, 2) determine whether Tac4 interacts with a region upstream the Stop codon or in the 3’-UTR of the mRNA, 3) determine whether Tac4 could also interact with other mRNA region, such as the 5'-UTR region, 4) identify the mRNA targets to determine whether Tac4 could have a general role in translation or could only be involved in tra
Analysing the transcriptome of exponentially grown or stationary phase yeasts in a genetic background that stabilises pervasive transcipts, we identified a first subset of ≈ 140 antisense transcripts anti-correlated with gene transcripts that are specifically expressed in quiescence. We are further investigating whether these genes are subject to a transcriptional interference and what are the mechanisms underlying this regulation. More in detail, we would like to analyse the loci where an antisense ncRNA are detected.
Cryptococcus neoformans is a ubiquitous yeast present in the environment that is able to interact closely with numerous organisms including amoeba, paramecium or nematodes. The interaction with these organisms shaped its virulence with acquisition of infectious properties as a consequence especially in mammals . The ability to survive nutrient starvation, oxidative stress, desiccation, both in the environment and during infection, indicates a high level of physiological and metabolic plasticity of the yeast. In humans, after primary infection during childhood, the yeast is able to survive within the host for years before reactivation upon immunosuppression, leading to a life threatening disseminated fungal infection. This phenomenon, called dormancy / quiescence is one of the main biological features of this fungus in relation with disease's pathogenesis. It is well known in bacteria (tuberculosis), parasites (Plasmodium, Toxoplasma). In C. neoformans, dormancy has only been demonstrated epidemiologically in our laboratory but not experimentally so far. We developed an assay where yeasts cells exhibiting characteristics of potentially dormant cells were generated. Indeed, dormant cells are characterized by a low metabolic activity sometimes undetectable under normal laboratory conditions, altered growth capacity, and the ability to resuscitate upon adequate stimulus. Dormant cells are known to have increased mitochondrial masse and activity justifying a screening strategy of a collection of KO mutants for mitochondrial proteins. In parallel the whole proteome, transcriptome and secretome will be obtain with the ambition to correlate these parameters. Our current project aims at exploring the metabolism of the dormant yeast to have a comprehensive picture of the pathways that are required for the maintenance of dormancy and fo exit from dormancy.
Invasion of epithelial cells by the obligate intracellular bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis results in its enclosure inside a membrane-bound compartment termed an inclusion. The bacterium quickly begins manipulating interactions between host intracellular trafficking and the inclusion interface, diverging from the endocytic pathway and escaping lysosomal fusion. We have isolated a mutant strain that shows several developmental defects. The C3BI will contribute to the statistical analysis of the data.
The gastrointestinal tract of humans is colonized by hundreds of microbial species, - bacteria, archaebacterial, fungi, protozoa and viruses -, collectively named the gut microbiome. The intestinal commensal bacteria have an important role in metabolic processes and contribute to colonization resistance against intestinal pathogens. Fungi are usually considered to be a minor component of the global microbiome. However, the mycobiome (fungal component of the entire microbiome) has been in fact little studied particularly with regards to its relationships with the other components of the microbiome. Fungi could be important players of the microbiome because some fungal species are able to proliferate in response to diet or during dysbiosis due to antibiotic treatment or gut inflammation. The aim of this project is to investigate the effect of specific antibiotics (primarily anti-Gram negative bacteria antibiotic) on the gut mycobiome. More specifically, we will examine the impact of cefotaxime and ceftriaxone, 2 antibiotics with same antimicrobial spectra but different rates of biliary elimination, on the changes in fungal communities.
Trichosporon asahii is a yeast responsible of human invasive infection worldwide. Actually, no genotyping method is available to determine relationship between clinical isolates. At the NRCMA we have more than 40 clinical isolates and 2 collection strains associated with clinical data. Thanks to P2M facility, whole genome for 33 isolates was sequenced. The aim of this project is to study the genetic diversity of Trichosporon asahii and the potential relationship with clinical and/or phenotypic data and finally propose a new genotyping method that could be usefull for clinician in case of local or national outbreak.
Quantitatively understanding the stochastic dynamics of gene expression requires measurements at the level of single cells. A common approach to follow the expression of genes in single cells and in real time is to make use of fluorescent reporter proteins and to record the cells' fluorescence by microscopy. However, this provides only an indirect readout of the biological processes that are of interest such as the regulation mechanisms at the promoter. A possible way to uncover the unobservable biological processes is to infer the hidden dynamics from the available data through the use of mechanistic models of gene expression. The goal of this project is to develop methods for state estimation and parameter inference for such models and to test these methods on real data.
Understanding the pathways of small RNA production during Meiotic Silencing by Unpaired DNA (MSUD) in the fungus Neurospora crassa
The canonical (“textbook”) process of DNA homology search and recognition is initiated by DNA double-strand breaks and is mediated by the universally conserved recombinases of the RecA family. Using the phenomenon “Repeat Induced Point mutation” (RIP) in N. crassa as a model system, we have previously revealed the existence of another way to search for DNA homology, which does not require RecA proteins and which apparently operates on intact DNA double helices. This pathway can be extremely efficient, as it allows some fungi to detect the presence of only two gene-sized DNA repeats in the genome. Our current work on Meiotic Silencing by Unpaired DNA (MSUD) has shown that the same recombination-independent pathway may also be involved in the early steps of homologous chromosome pairing in meiosis, thus emerging as a conserved, perhaps fundamental mechanism of DNA homology search and recognition. We are now interested in further investigating this mechanism, using RIP and MSUD as two complementary recombination-independent processes. Specifically for this project, we are interested in identifying molecular genetic features that associate with (or even trigger) the production of small RNAs during MSUD in N. crassa.
Assessing the role of gut microbiota in spondyloarthritis patients and impact of anti-TNF treament on its composition
Our hypothesis is that gut microbiota could define predictive markers of response and tolerance to biologics. A. Preliminary results: gut bacteria predicting response to TNF blockers. A proof-of-concept study has been performed on 58 patients who were recruited according to the following criteria: active disease despite NSAIDs intake; no history of inflammatory bowel disease; no antibiotics intake within 3 months prior recruitment. Bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequencing region was performed on stools samples before and after TNF-blocker treatment. Diversity metrics and custom LefSe were used to explore the relationship between the composition of the intestinal microbiota and the efficacy of TNF-blockers. A lower alpha diversity at baseline was unexpectedly associated with better treatment response, HLA-B27 genotype and smoking behavior. Meanwhile, beta diversity was associated with smoking behavior and HLA-B27 genotype before and after treatment. Beta diversity at baseline was associated with the BASDAI index after treatment, and the response to the treatment. These results indicate a potential regulatory role for the gut microbiota on the underlying mechanisms involved in the response to TNF-blockers. Moreover, a LefSe-like approach identified 6 bacterial species as potential biomarkers for the treatment response, despite the absence of global changes (beta diversity) in the microbiota composition following a 3-month TNF-blockers intake. B. Current project: ITS2 fungal rDNA sequencing analyses In order to establish a causal link between host-microbe interactions and clinical efficacy of anti-TNF, we expect the following research endpoints from our experimental and translation approach (cohorts/clinical trials): 1. Defining the impact of anti-TNF on fungal microbiota and on the relative representation of fungal/bacterial components 2. Defining correlations between gut fungal composition and clinical outcome, with the aim of identifying stool microbial fingerprint of durable responses and/or primary resistance to anti-TNFα in SpA patients. The analyses will be performed on the same 58 SpA patients that were previously analyzed for their 16S bacterial component. These patients perfectly described regarding their disease characteristics, demographics, ongoing treatments, response to anti-TNF after a 3-month treatment period.
Comparison of Microsatellites and Multi Locus Sequences Typing approaches. Fungi: Pneumocytis jirovecii
Many neurodegenerative disorders are caused by the large expansion of a repeated sequence, called a "trinucleotide repeat". Our laboratory is using the CRISPR-Cas family of endonucleases in order to shorten the repeat tract below the length that is known to be pathological in humans. Some of the nucleases tested are very efficient at cutting the repeat tract, but in order to make this approach a viable gene therapy strategy, we must ensure that the nuclease is not inducing mutations in other parts of the genome (so-called "off-targets"). The present project aims at analyzing all possible off-targets of these nucleases on the different repeated sequences involved in neurodegenerative disorders, in order to validate (or invalidate) this approach.
Ce projet, discuté avec le groupe « Statistiques », a pour but de proposer une analyse statistique des données quantitatives de phénotypage à haut débit générées au laboratoire. Le groupe Statistiques se propose de former et d’accompagner C. Maufrais à ce type d’analyse. Notre jeu de données de phénotypage consiste en des données multivariées (mesure de 16 variables sur 42 souches cultivées dans 100 conditions de croissance, avec réplicats biologiques et techniques).
Paleo(meta)genomics is an emerging and rapidly growing field where most is yet to be done. In most cases, it consists in the analysis of ancient DNA high-throughput sequencing data obtained from archaeological material or historical samples, and the goal is to retrieve and interpret the genomic information from species that from the past (microbial, eukaryotic, etc.) It combines tools borrowed from different fields, such as genomics, computational biology, microbial ecology, phylogenetics, population genetics, etc. However, at the moment there are no well-established tools for the analysis of this type of data. Hence, each lab must develop custom solutions, combining existing tools or developing new ones to meet the goals of their research programs. As a recently established lab, the microbial paleogenomics unit will spend the upcoming months setting up diverse pipelines and analysis tools for the different projects that will be developed in the coming years, many of which have been already used but need to be re-written in an understandable languaje and structure.
Dans les années récentes, l’utilisation de données RNA-Seq nous a permis de ré-annoter le génome des trois souches de références de, respectivement, C. neoformans, C. deneoformans et C. deuterogattii (JANBON et al. 2014; GONZALEZ-HILARION et al. 2016; FERRAREZE et al. 2020). En utilisant des données de TSS-Seq et 3UTR-Seq, nous avons identifié les extrémités de chaque gène codant, ce qui nous a permis de décrire en détail la structure des Transcript Leader (TL) (WALLACE et al. 2020). Les séquences TL chez Cryptococcus contiennent un grand nombre de codons uATG (plus de 10 000) qui ne sont pas utilisées pour coder le protéome de ces levures. Nous avons pu montrer que les ATG « codants » étaient caractérisés par un motif proche de celui identifié par Marylin Kozak en étudiant des cellules de singes dans les années 80 (KOZAK 1986). Chez Cryptococcus, le nombre, la position et le motif associé aux uATG régulent l’expression des gènes. Les motifs associés aux ATG peuvent aussi réguler la diversité protéique et notamment leur adressage dans différentes organelles lorsque deux ATG sont en phase et incluant ou excluant, respectivement une séquence d’adressage. (WALLACE et al. 2020). Lors de cette étude, nous avons identifié un grand nombre de clusters de TSS alternative associés au gènes codant chez Cryptococcus. Leur nombre dépend des conditions de cultures mais par exemple, plus de 16 000 clusters de TSS sont associés aux 6800 gènes codants de C. neoformans quand les cellules sont cultivées à 30°C en phase exponentielle. Ces TSS alternatifs peuvent altérer la taille de la séquence TL mais aussi la séquence N-terminale et donc l’adressage de la protéine codée. Certains d’entre de ces TSS alternatifs sont positionnés au milieu de la partie codante des gènes et contrôlent la transcription de mRNAs dont la fonction est inconnue. Les conditions de culture régulent l’utilisation de ces TSS, certains étant régulés par la température d’autres par la phase de croissance. L’étude de la régulation de l’utilisation des TSS alternatifs et de leurs conséquences sur la biologie de Cryptococcus est un sujet majeur de l’unité. Une partie de cette étude demande l’identification et la description de TSS alternatifs et de leur régulation. Le but est de tester différents modèles et/ou pipelines afin de premierement caratétiser ce qu’est un cluster de TSS type chez C. neoformans puis dans un deuxième temps d’analyser la régulation de leurs usages en fonction des conditions de culture.